The successful candidate will be comfortable with big data structures, and intimately familiar with technologies like Hadoop, Hive, Spark, PrestoDB, EMR, Tableau, etc., as well as database schema and business processes. The candidate will have a strong bias towards data-driven decision-making and will be comfortable with ambiguity while working in a fast-paced dynamic environment.
JVZoo’s strength is that it allows experienced marketers to gain access to product launches and a huge range of online courses while setting up sales funnels and customized landing pages. It’s definitely not for someone who wants to monetize a blog or earn money by having users click through and buy physical products. If you’ve carved out a strong presence online in the marketing space, JVZoo might be a perfect fit.
One last note. I’ve been asked what I think of other affiliate marketing resources, both free and paid. I’m familiar with some of them, not all. I’ve read ebooks, watch videos, bought courses and more. So far, the only paid-for course that has impressed me enough to recommend is Kayla Aimee’s Affiliate Acceleration: Impactful Strategies To Increase Your Passive Income.
ACCOUNT OPERATIONS - Manages the day-to-day operations of multiple affiliate programs, including managing affiliate application questions, deployment of creative assets, etc. while ensuring program details are accurate and up-to-date. Monitors affiliates’ marketing methods frequently to prevent fraud and ensure compliance with each program's terms and conditions (Brandverity, FTC, Fraud).
JVZoo lets you both host and create landing pages on their own website, so it’s far better suited for professional marketers who want to flood the internet with offers, many of them for courses to make money. You don’t need your own website to participate in JVZoo, but you will need to know how to drive traffic to a landing or squeeze page in order to profit from being a JVZoo affiliate.

Thanks a lot Spencer for these affiliate marketing tips. I was looking for some tips on how I can improve myself with affiliate marketing and there your email landed in my mail box and I came across this wonderful piece of information. I am happy that you have suggested linking images with an affiliate link and that’s what I did in my last promotional post on my blog.
For you to become an affiliate marketer here, you do not need to purchase them or seek permission to become an affiliate. All you need is to click the promote button, and you will have a platform to create your account. From here, you will receive an affiliate link that allows you to advertise anywhere. Once a person has clicked on the link you have provided and make a purchase, you will automatically get a commission for that sale.
Finding products seems to work well. However, I can’t see a way to just “store” my found products so I’m able to come back later to add or remove them from my personal selection. That would be especially helpful as I’d be able to easily move between different posts and reference the same product again. I’m basically stuck having to search fro the product again, if I want to mention it somewhere else again – be it with a photo or link.
As search engines have become more prominent, some affiliate marketers have shifted from sending e-mail spam to creating automatically generated web pages that often contain product data feeds provided by merchants. The goal of such web pages is to manipulate the relevancy or prominence of resources indexed by a search engine, also known as spamdexing. Each page can be targeted to a different niche market through the use of specific keywords, with the result being a skewed form of search engine optimization.
I do want to pay the commission somebody deserves, I do want to provide support, I do hope people think my product will be worth ‘selling’ to their friends and members and I am happy to set a long cookie time as I think it is only fair that if somebody comes through a referral that they get paid for it! Without them I wouldn’t have made the sale in the first place!!
I think Clickbank although popular was the hardest affiliate program to make money. There seems to be high refund percentage on there, most people just buy the digital products, download it and just ask for a refund which i think is ridiculous. There were weeks where i saw a few sales only to see it reversed in the following month due to refund. I have given up on them
In the case of promoting consumer products, like tools, books, toys and household items, the biggest affiliate network, by far, is Amazon. Amazon Associates affiliate program lets you promote any item that is sold on their platform. Amazon Associates is Amazon’s affiliate marketing program that allows website owners and bloggers to create links and earn referral fees when customers click through and buy products from Amazon. It’s completely free to join and easy to use.
Click Bank is an affiliate website that is unique in the fact that it is the distributor for it’s products, meaning that you’re dealing with the supplier of the products you’re promoting directly, rather than dealing with third-party suppliers. This program, like the one mentioned above, also provides it’s affiliates with in-depth training on how to get started, only in the form of training tutorials, rather than training courses. This training will walk you through getting your account set up and getting started in the affiliate marketing world.
Some merchants run their own (in-house) affiliate programs using dedicated software, while others use third-party intermediaries to track traffic or sales that are referred from affiliates. There are two different types of affiliate management methods used by merchants: standalone software or hosted services, typically called affiliate networks. Payouts to affiliates or publishers can be made by the networks on behalf of the merchant, by the network, consolidated across all merchants where the publisher has a relationship with and earned commissions or directly by the merchant itself.
Through our Performance Partnerships® program management framework, we help clients create transparent, high-value programs that bring more customers, incremental sales and faster growth. Acceleration Partners’ growing global reach, discerning industry expertise and relationships with performance-focused partners has led to a client roster that includes Target, adidas, Gymboree, Reebok, Warby Parker, ThirdLove, ButcherBox, FindYourTrainer, Smart Destinations, Luca + Danni and many other brands.

Oh! I’ll add this – if your individual site or blog is applicable, All Posters has an outstanding affiliate program. I get healthy payments from them each month. They have more than just posters – they have art prints, wall murals, t-shirts, wall decals, etc. A lot more people order these online than you’d imagine. I wouldn’t give them up for anything.
Forms of new media have also diversified how companies, brands, and ad networks serve ads to visitors. For instance, YouTube allows video-makers to embed advertisements through Google's affiliate network.[18][19] New developments have made it more difficult for unscrupulous affiliates to make money. Emerging black sheep are detected and made known to the affiliate marketing community with much greater speed and efficiency.[citation needed]

Excellent article Chris! This will help me out a lot. I am a new author through amazon and my book is also being sold through KDP Select (The kindle option worldwide) but regardless of my advertising on my Facebook page, which cost money, I do not seem to be getting anywhere. With Amazon Associates, is it totally free and no cost to you or do you pay a fee over a certain amount of time. Also if you have any tips on how to get a book out there that would be excellent. My book is being sold at Books a Million, Barnes and Noble, and Alibris. I plan on doing a book signing at Barnes and Noble in hopes it will raise awareness of my book.


Major brands are looking to take complex performance marketing programs global, creating a significant opportunity for strategic leadership and innovative execution. As a result, Acceleration Partners (AP) is seeking a Senior Associate, Affiliate Marketing based out of Sydney. The Senior Associate will be focused on client delivery for one of our most high-profile clients, and will be a key part of Acceleration Partners’ growth in the APAC region. The role is full-time with several opportunities for growth into more senior marketing positions.
No matter how long you have been in the field of business or whether your business is completely established or not; you should always look out for ways to stay ahead of the competitors in the marketplace. I read an article about some basic business trends to make you success: https://cabstartup.com/business-trends-to-make-you-a-success/ It would surely interest you what are the sure-shot ways to achieve this goal of taking the lead? For this, you need to be aware of the market, what are the strategies being followed, what are the requirements being fulfilled, and what are the latest technology options available to aid you to automate and advance your business.
Promote products that are stepping stones to products you will create in the future. This is a bit more advanced, but is a great way to think ahead. Amy Porterfield suggests thinking about the first thing your followers will need in order to get started with what you provide. For example, I teach people how to blog, so the first thing they need to start a blog is hosting. That’s why I am an affiliate for hosting.
Want to make money online by simply recommending products on Amazon.com? Inside this book you'll learn how to make money with Amazon's affiliate program - Amazon Associates. With these step-by-step instructions, you'll have the potential of earning well over $100,000 in commissions from Amazon Associates. This is for people who want to earn a passive income, which allows you to have more free time for yourself and your family. You'll Soon Find Out: - The Advantages To Amazon Affiliate Marketing - How To Create An Amazon Affiliate Account - Strategies To Find A Profitable Niche - An Inexpensive Way To Create A Traffic Bound Website - How To Begin Earning Money - How To Find Profitable Products On Amazon - How To Make The Products Sell - Ultimate Strategies To Maximize Your Earnings - How To Get More Business You'll soon be making a passive income so that you can wake up every morning and not have to worry about making money!
10. Commission FactoryThe purpose of Commission Factory was to make performance-based marketing available to everyone and not require a steep learning curve in order to get involved and be successful. The platform has been designed to foster a spirit of collaboration between Merchants, Affiliates and Agencies in order to grow mutually beneficial and prosperous relationships. Because they have little to no barriers to entry Commission Factory has an enormously fast growing user base that enables companies of all sizes to discover the power of performance marketing.
The Associate / Senior Associate (Executive) is a remote, work from home position, as are all positions at Acceleration Partners (a structure is central to our culture and our vision to change the work/life paradigm). Ideal candidates will reside within reasonable driving distance of London. Some travel is required, for client meetings or other internal meetings, conferences, etc. Candidates must hold a valid passport and be able to travel internationally.
By 6 Months… You are strategically overseeing and executing the day-to-day operations of multiple affiliate programs.  You have formed solid relationships with key client contacts and are the main point of contact for clients’ strategic and account questions.  Challenging client situations are being managed with guidance from Associate Director.  Client data is regularly being analyzed and used strategically in optimization, activation and recruitment campaigns. Client accounts are being handled effectively and strategically, without dropping any balls, and clients are aware of and pleased with this outcome. Clients are being serviced profitably with target bill rates being met, and client Net Promoter Scores are 8+. 
1. We do NOT guarantee any results (negative or positive). We will NOT be held responsible for any misuse of this service, including (but not limited) to increases or decreases in search rankings, increases or decreases in search positions, increases or decreases in backlinks or website authority, keywords, traffic, manual or algorithmic penalties and any other indicators.
Over the last five years, we have made it our goal to become the largest independent affiliate agency in the U.S. We achieved that goal in 2016 and we are continuing to grow rapidly as more clients across more industries understand the significant difference we can make for their businesses.  As a result of this growth, AP is hiring at a swift rate in a very niche industry where talent can be difficult to find. Supporting the Talent and Culture Team, the Talent Acquisition Specialist will contribute to candidate sourcing and interviewing, reporting, employer branding, and a variety of projects and process improvement initiatives for the team.
LOVED this – thank you Chris. So glad I found it just as I was about to add a store to my blog. I think it would be a better idea to just start linking to Amazon in every recipe and post! (Right?) BTW – I’ve already shared this post on G+ and LinkedIn and sent it to a bunch of friends. I always wish peeps would TELL me when they share my stuff, so here I am telling you. 🙂
Amazon and affiliate marketing in general is a decent way of making side income, but nothing really compares to making your own product or service that others will pay for, especially something that ppl will pay for month after month. WIth affiliate marketing, you’re basically helping retailers find lifelong customers, and you get a cut just once. Bad deal, IMO
The people that you refer too did not master amazon, they merely mastered the value they offer to visitors. If you are able to engage/connect with visitors, then you got a winner, some people merely have better skills then others, which may include offering high value content, coding/custom skills. Do you agree that these people brought something to the table? If they did not, then visitors would not continue to visit their sites, right? You can put up all the content in the world, you can get all the backlinks you want, but if you can not engage/connect with your visitors, then all is lost. These site most likely did not start off with custom sites; they started off just like everyone else, some rag/tag site. I ran across an affiliate site a few months ago, and the content on his site would just blow your mind, and let me tell you,this guy had affiliate links from all major affiliate networks, his site has so much authority that he is listed right up under amazon, and some actual product manufacturers; how did he do this? He brought solutions, and value to his visitors, he knew what they were looking for, and knows how to engage, and connect with them. If you can not figure out how to blow your visitors mind, then what do you really have to offer? His avg reviews were between 7k-10k words? how about you? 500-1000 words? at the end of the day, which site will google find more impressive, yours, or his, and i assure you, he had far more affiliate links on his site then you have on yours as you could not skip-a-paragraph without seeing affiliate links.

Authority websites take years to develop so if you choose this model make sure you have other income streams coming in while you build it out. The monetization options for authority sites are only limited by your imagination. Advertising, straight affiliate marketing, 2nd-tier models, paid reviews, JV’s, are just a few examples of how to make income from authority sites.


Wealthy Affiliate is my top suggestion for two reasons: They offer in-depth training on how to be a successful affiliate marketer, and they offer round the clock support from other affiliates, both old and new, so it’s essentially a huge community of people working together to help each other be as successful as possible. It’s free to sign up, and once you get used to the way everything works, you can either upgrade to a premium membership or stick to the free one if you want to.

Facebook groups can, in some cases, receive a lot more engagement than pages. Although it’s important for your business to have a Facebook page, you can create a group for additional engagement from followers who are invested in your business. Groups are perfect for having conversations with your followers and, as the admin of the group, you can establish yourself as an authority figure.
888.com is a premium gaming destination and a well established name in the casino and poker circuit. Its site offers numerous sub-brands including 888sport, 888ladies, 888bingo, 888casino and 888poker, as well as ReefClub Casino. The 888 family of companies attract millions of players, and the company provides affiliates with frequent promotions to keep players interested.
I couldn’t agree more on the advice on providing long-form content. In fact, most of modules we created are probably still longer than the ones found on AuthorityHackers, and 8000-words is considered normal. With the difference being that since they are technical in nature, they probably take 1.5 more times to create than a regular post written in English. :)
I didn’t realize there was a limit until a few years back when I hit the maximum. I wish Amazon would increase it! To be honest, I find their tracking system pretty messy and think it needs an overhaul however, it is great for testing what works and what doesn’t. Most of what I’ve written about in other tips in these articles was learned through tracking.
The ideal candidate will work with the Director of Marketing to overhaul our current affiliate marketing program. This will include updating creative, affiliate agreement, etc. within the Shareasale network. Additionally, this will entail finding quality affiliates to bring to the program to help increase sales on BodyHelix.com. The ideal candidate has strong communication skills, is well-versed with the Shareasale platform, is confident in their abilities, and is able to deliver measurable results. Looking for a marketing professional who will provide guaranteed results.
Pay-Per-Click is also considered as widespread and common affiliate agreement. Under this agreement, the affiliate marketers will get fixed rates depending on the number of clients who click on the links placed on the affiliate website that leads to the merchant website. Here a purchase is not necessary to earn commissions, all that has to be done is that the client clicks the link and stays at least thirty seconds on the merchant website. Regardless of what the visitor does on the merchant site, this will not affect the commission.

In the BigCommerce affiliate program, you receive a 200% bounty per referral and $1,500 per Enterprise referral, with no cap on commissions. Plus, the more referrals you drive through the program, the higher your commission tier will go. BigCommerce uses an industry leading 90-day cookie, so you will receive credit for up to three months for the referrals you generate. Also, there are no obligations or minimum commitments to join the program. 

Affiliate Platform Description: Since 2006, WarriorPlus has brought together the leaders in online digital product creation and marketing. We’ve established a thriving and dynamic community where great minds share great products for greater success. We are committed to serving you and being a part of your journey to help others build their own profitable online business. 

Also probably worth noting that if you are thinking about signing up for the Amazon affiliate program and are located in Colorado or New York, sign up with an out of state business address. Amazon closed their programs to affiliates in these states because of tax laws that were passed. There are quite a few services that allow you to choose a business address in a different state and will automatically forward your mail to your current address. 

Commission Junction is perhaps one of the largest affiliate programs online besides Clickbank. This site is known for millions of products, companies, brands and services online that one can promote. They also cater to some of the best leading names in the market so you can choose your products like tech gears to restaurants to pet accessories. It is also one of the easiest sites to use as an affiliate.
Marketing analysts study the consumer market for their company and help the company with guided choices and strategic decisions. While analytics are a numbers game, many marketing analysts also pour over text and research to determine if it fits their market. If you’re great at organizing information, understanding statistics, and plotting out marketing strategy, the role of marketing analyst is a lucrative job option.

If you use this link you'll get discounted pricing for just $2.95/mo. So click here to visit Bluehost.com. Bluehost is the #1 recommended web hosting by WordPress.org. It also happens to be my top recommendation. Every account features 1-click WordPress installation. It is one of the most well known, mos popular, and affordable web hosting options. Bluehost is especially great for beginners due to their user friendly features and one-click WordPress installation.
We are the leading global affiliate marketing agency in the industry. Recently our company was named Best Performance Marketing Agency and Industry Choice of Agency by the International Performance Marketing Association. We strive to be a high-value, transparent and performance-driven partner to our clients as well as change the work-life paradigm for our team members. 

Hey Sue, I can’t disclose the amount of money that the website was earning when I sold it, but as I admitted at the onset of the article my income from Amazon would have surpassed $100,000 had I not sold the site. I already have several other authority style websites I’m building up as well as my network of smaller niche sites that earn good money as well.
Some commentators originally suggested that affiliate links work best in the context of the information contained within the website itself. For instance, if a website contains information pertaining to publishing a website, an affiliate link leading to a merchant's internet service provider (ISP) within that website's content would be appropriate. If a website contains information pertaining to sports, an affiliate link leading to a sporting goods website may work well within the context of the articles and information about sports. The goal, in this case, is to publish quality information on the website and provide context-oriented links to related merchant's websites.
In fact, one of the best ways to increase your reach for the posts you place on your Facebook business page is to share the post on your personal profile. Many affiliate marketers choose to do this with their affiliate links on Facebook because their personal friends and family can help increase their business page posts through likes, comments, and shares, which, in turn, can increase conversions from affiliate links.

Promote products that are stepping stones to products you will create in the future. This is a bit more advanced, but is a great way to think ahead. Amy Porterfield suggests thinking about the first thing your followers will need in order to get started with what you provide. For example, I teach people how to blog, so the first thing they need to start a blog is hosting. That’s why I am an affiliate for hosting.


One thing alot of ppl don’t know is that their small blog and writing about things that are passionate to their heart can yield them healthy affiliate income vs what they’re earning on the day job now in as little as 2 years. The key to success in affiliate marketing if you’re generating income via a content-based WordPress blog or static HTML website is to frequently update it with “lots and lots of content” Transformational content marketing in a specific niche is possible for anyone who has 0% experience writing online.
Despite this, the affiliate program has stated the following: “This filing will not impact Neverblue’s ability to meet client needs in any way—we intend to continue to operate business as usual without interruption. Neverblue’s business is fundamentally strong and we intend to make all affiliate payments on schedule, in a timely and reliable manner.”

We reserve the right to cancel any orders placed for websites in illegal or offensive industries. Any illegal content, products, services or items hateful, objectionable or defamatory content aimed at any people group, race, gender, sexual orientation or otherwise attacks on any person, business, organisation, product or service; cruelty towards animals; or otherwise content found to be objectionable will be cancelled and refunded.

I’m curious – how are Amazon affiliate sites faring after the Google Panda update. With the keyword density of the content articles needed for these types of sites, have you or any of your Niche Profits members experienced a major decline in traffic or rankings? If so, what are your recommendations for creating better backlinks and showing more authority/relevancy for these types of sites?
Creating blog content is a very useful and effective way of consistently building content on a site. When creating blog posts, it's a good idea to do some keyword research to figure out what it is that your audience is interested in and searching for online. Also, be sure to research competitors, forums and social media to narrow down on topics for your blog. 

Niche Marketing Sites – These types of websites are what you will see the majority of the time when it comes to affiliate marketing. We will cover how to find the right niche in the next topic but basically these websites are usually small to medium sized and go after a very specific niche. Usually it is something you’ve never would of imagined but that’s the beauty of it as there will be little to no competition. http://www.birdcagesblog.com
Who can tell me if “link masking or cloaking” is a violation of the Google TOS? I think it is and I see dozens of affiliate sites doing it. I also see quite a few sites not using “nofollow” on their affiliate links. Unless your masked link says something like “I bought product X used in this review at Amazon.com” it would be a violation. I think if reported, you’d be in for a manual spam action against your site. Thoughts?
However, one day I had a reader offer to write a book review for me. I knew the reader so I was confident the review would be OK to publish. As with all my reviews, it had an affiliate link to Amazon in it. I was a little skeptical about whether the review would convert. I thought my readers might not respond as well to a stranger’s review of the book. I was wrong.

The core of the role is to provide hands-on client service, work closely with our largely US-based client services team to execute regional campaigns, and to support international expansion projects as needed. This will require excellent client service skills, an entrepreneurial spirit, strategic thinking, and a capability (and willingness) to own the day to day tasks and projects for client programs. It will also require the ability to comfortably present to and work with senior client contacts and key regional publishers. A successful candidate will have a “whatever it takes” attitude to meeting and exceeding clients’ needs and will maintain Acceleration Partners’ high standards and reputation for strategic vision and excellence. 
I’m curious – how are Amazon affiliate sites faring after the Google Panda update. With the keyword density of the content articles needed for these types of sites, have you or any of your Niche Profits members experienced a major decline in traffic or rankings? If so, what are your recommendations for creating better backlinks and showing more authority/relevancy for these types of sites?
Acceleration Partners seeks an Affiliate Marketing Associate to coordinate the day-to-day operations of multiple affiliate programs. The role is full-time with several opportunities for growth into more senior marketing positions. This person will be responsible for affiliate communications and general account maintenance, including recruitment, newsletters, and fraud checks.

Hi thanks for a great article. I have been shopabot to build my first amazon niche site. have you heard of it? If so what do you think? So far in a few weeks I have about 12k visitors and almost 100 product clicks, however none of that is being represented on my amazon reports page despit having the api set up correctly. What is your take on this software and those sort of numbers?
JVZoo lets you both host and create landing pages on their own website, so it’s far better suited for professional marketers who want to flood the internet with offers, many of them for courses to make money. You don’t need your own website to participate in JVZoo, but you will need to know how to drive traffic to a landing or squeeze page in order to profit from being a JVZoo affiliate.

Mistake #2: Using the “They must not be my people” excuse to be spammy. I’m not a fan of this common tactic. Here’s how it works: people send a huge number of sales/promotional emails to their list with no warning and with no easy way to opt out. When people complain or unsubscribe, they put it on them (“Oh well, they aren’t my type of subscriber anyway…”), instead of taking responsibility for the spam (let’s call it what it is). What ever happened to “treat others the way you want to be treated”?


Shopify is a very popular site building platform for people interested in building eCommerce stores. It has been around for the past few years and seen significant growth in its user base over this time. You can earn a staggering 200% per sale for every new customer you refer to them, which means that there is up to $2400 per new customer on offer.
.I’m a pregnant stay home mum looking for how to earn extra money.I have tried to start a blog but it seems not to pay as I expected. So I met this guy that wants me to market his packaging,archive box and printing company and to pay me per comission.So needed to educate myself and find this post.its amazing how you are able to put all this I one post.very educative.
Great article. Thanks for writing it. I am right now picking my theme and building my wordpress. I have my hosting and domain name. What I don’t get though from the article is whether you have to apply to Amazon to be an affiliate or if they accept everyone. How does that all work? Like if I build my site and post links to amazon’s products, they wouldn’t have my details to pay me my commission. Do the templates do all that for you automatically? I am finding it hard to choose one because I want one that automatically integrates the amazon products without making my blog look like a shop per se. I’m going to have a look on the amazon site to see if there’s any clues there. But I thought that was the finishing and crucial touch, which forgive me, seems missing from your well explained and detailed article.
completely free to start out, and they provide training sections to help you get started, and are the no-nonsense type of business, in that they are up-front and honest with you from the start about how much time and effort you have to put in to make money online. Like WA, again, once you’ve gotten a feel for how the industry works and what working with
With the ability to rank organically in search engine queries, bloggers excel at increasing a seller’s conversions. The blogger samples the product or service and then writes a comprehensive review that promotes the brand in a compelling way, driving traffic back to the seller’s site. The blogger is awarded for his or her influence spreading the word about the value of the product, helping to improve the seller’s sales.
All articles are published under the name of one of our employees or are in a ghost-written format. However, if you’d like to be the author of the article, simply choose this option when placing your order (extra fees apply). It’s worth noting that if you choose to be the author, we’ll ask you to create a company email for us (e.g. content@yourdomain.com). We’ll also need an additional 10 days to complete your order.
Thanks for the write-up on EasyAnon. I was debating whether or not to give it a try. I’ve been using Amazon Product In A Post (free plugin) since November. It is ok, but sometimes some of the links don’t show up, plus I would like the ability to customize the photos/links a bit more. I purchased EasyAnon through one of your links so I can finally see how it compares. 

Who can tell me if “link masking or cloaking” is a violation of the Google TOS? I think it is and I see dozens of affiliate sites doing it. I also see quite a few sites not using “nofollow” on their affiliate links. Unless your masked link says something like “I bought product X used in this review at Amazon.com” it would be a violation. I think if reported, you’d be in for a manual spam action against your site. Thoughts?
Is said to have paid out about $1 billion to their publishers which makes them one of the best affiliate programs you can join in. If you love a wide variety of products, websites and brands then this is the site to explore. They are also known for their high approval rate which allows you to earn a good amount of different products. Check out their site and see how you can do just that!

Overall, the writing is smooth and easy to follow. Even people who are not particular savvy when it comes to computers and the Internet (I am personally very unfamiliar with this aspect of technology) will be able to read this book without many problems. While the topic necessitates the use of technical terms, Gray and Fox make certain to define all the terms. Even when they do not, their writing helps readers to easily decipher the meanings from the context.

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